This list provides an extensive bibliography of resources consulted in the development of this Framework, including toolkits and policy articles, with annotations offering more detailed information.
American Planning Association (2011). Arts and Culture Briefing Papers 01: The Role of the Arts and Culture in Planning Practice.
This is a briefing paper prepared by the American Planning Association to illustrate how planners can work with partners in the arts and culture sector and use creative strategies to achieve economic, social, environmental, and community goals. It provides comprehensive definitions, an overview of the arts and culture field, and a framework for how the field’s strategies can enhance and inform planning practice.
Andersen, L. & Malone, M. (2013). All Culture Is Local: Good Practice In Regional Cultural Mapping & Planning From Local Government, The CAMRA Toolkit. Sydney: UTS Press.
This is a resource for cultural policy planning and implementation, presented through a collection of seventeen predominantly regional NSW case studies. A focus on resources, networks and cultural industries also highlights how arts and culture contribute to broader regional development, edited by Local Government NSW, the University of Sydney and the University of Technology, Sydney.
Creative Cities Network (2010). Cultural Planning Toolkit, British Columbia: 2010 Legacies Now and Creative City Network of Canada.
This toolkit is a guide for the process of cultural planning in a community. It includes an adaptable model and practical checklists for navigating and charting progress. Background material and additional details are provided on a companion website. The toolkit has been developed to encourage community leaders, planners and local government staff to explore the potential of cultural planning. The authors hope to demonstrate how cultural resources can support the delivery of a spectrum of community priorities.
Creative Cities Network (2010). Cultural Mapping Toolkit, British Columbia: 2010 Legacies Now and Creative City Network of Canada.
This mapping toolkit has been designed to guide users through the entire mapping process, from creating an inventory to drawing up and presenting a map. The process has been broken down into stages and steps, each accompanied by examples, checklists or worksheets to help the planning process.
Curson, T., Evans, G., Foord, J., & Shaw, P. (2007). Cultural planning toolkit: Report on toolkits and data. London: Cities Institute.
Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (2015). Local Government Better Practice Guide: Strategic Resource Plan. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.
This guide has been developed to assist local government in meeting the statutory requirements in regard to the preparation of a strategic resource plan. Three sections: 1. Planning and Accountability Framework: provides an overview of the relationship between the key planning and reporting documents in the Act. 2. Strategic Resource Plan (overview): provides an overview of the statutory requirements and better practice guidance for preparing a strategic resource plan. 3. Strategic Resource Plan (guidance): provides detailed guidance on the preparation of the strategic resource plan, including the process for identifying, collecting, modelling and reporting forecast information. 4. Strategic Resource Plan (model): provides a model strategic resource plan prepared in accordance with the Act and regulations for inclusion in the council plan.
Erturk, E. (ed) (2015). Local cultural policies handbook: steps, tools and case studies. Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi University Press.
Evans, G. (2001). Cultural planning: An Urban Renaissance?. New York, NY: Routledge.
Written by UK expert in urban culture and development, Graeme Evans, Cultural Planning focusses on the planning of the arts and culture and the interaction between the state arts policy, the cultural economy and town and city planning. It uses case studies and examples from Europe, North America and Asia. The book calls for the adoption of consultative planning policy, distributive models and a more integrated approach to both culture and urban design, to prevent the reinforcement of existing geographical and cultural divides.
Ghilardi, L. (2003). Cultural planning: A strategic approach to successful and sustainable community-based regeneration in Scotland. Glasgow: Scottish Urban Regeneration Forum.
This report was developed on behalf of the National Cultural Planning Steering Group in Scotland. The purpose of the research was: to assess the relevance and application of Cultural Planning as an overarching vision for cultural and community regeneration in Scotland; to propose Cultural Planning as a successful strategic tool for real community engagement in Community Planning, and to consolidate the understanding and participation of mainstream funders and decision makers. Existing good practice is highlighted as a basis for regeneration strategies at community and city levels. Recommendations for national policy implementation are also made.
Grogan, D., Mercer, C. & Engwicht, D. (1995). The Cultural Planning Handbook: an Essential Australian Guide. Brisbane: Allen and Unwin.
This handbook offers practical guidelines for mapping the cultural resources of communities and devising and implementing appropriate cultural development strategies. It is a guide for community development workers, planning professionals, tourism operators, artists and cultural workers and community members involved in cultural development.
Guppy, M., & Sansom, G. (Eds) (1997). Better places, richer communities: Cultural planning and local development, a practical guide (revised edition). Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.
Hume, G. (2009). Cultural Planning for Creative Communities, Canada.
This book is authored by Gord Hume, a pioneer of the Creative City movement in Canadian municipal government. It offers practical ideas and plans on how Canadian municipalities can adapt the emerging “fourth pillar of sustainability” into their planning, budgeting, decision making, and community leadership. Cultural Planning for Creative Communities offers an insider’s look at forming local roundtables and community action groups for cultural planning. It details cultural mapping and outlines the process local governments can take to implement municipal cultural planning.
Local Government South Australia. (2002). Creative Communities: Guidelines for Developing and Maintaining an Arts and Cultural Policy. Adelaide: Local Government South Australia.
This resource was developed by Creative Communities Network (CCN)– a network of cultural development workers employed by councils in South Australia and state arts bodies. The kit highlights the importance of an arts and cultural policy framework for local Councils and provides policy and project descriptions. It is particularly useful for those new to work in cultural development in councils.
Mercer, C. (2006). Cultural planning for urban development and creative cities.
Written by cultural policy researcher Colin Mercer, this article captures the emergence of urban centers as more than economic entities, but increasingly as cultural hubs, or creative cities. The author describes an urban cultural planning framework, including discussion on strategy, resources and cross-sector, integrated planning.
NSW Ministry for the Arts (2004). Cultural Planning Guidelines for Local Government. Sydney: Ministry for the Arts.
This document provides information to assist NSW councils in preparing cultural plans for their communities. It was developed by the NSW Ministry for the Arts and the NSW Department of Local Government after consultation with local government representatives and key agencies. The importance of local cultural planning that is underpinned by an understanding of local cultural context and cultural wellbeing is explored. A checklist for successful planning, glossary of useful terms and indicators for successful cultural plans are also included. This document is currently being reviewed and may be re-published in 2015.
Redaelli, E. (2013). Assessing a place in cultural planning: A framework for American local governments. Cultural Trends, 22(1), 30-44.
Written by American cultural policy and planning expert Eleonora Redaelli, this study outlines a framework for an operational deﬁnition of ‘place’ that helps connect spaces to empirical data about their cultural resources and residents. In a US setting, the results suggest that the use of this framework could help policy makers to assess the texture of their territory in its administrative, cultural and social dimensions.
Research and policy articles
Ashton, P., C. Gibson and R. Gibson, (eds). By-Roads and Hidden Treasures: Mapping Cultural Assets in Regional Australia, Crawley: UWA.
This edited collection by Australian cultural planning and mapping experts, sought to map regional culture in contemporary Australia to assess that culture’s value.
Blomkamp, E. (2014). Summary of PhD thesis Findings: Meanings and Measures of Urban Cultural Policy.
Local government in Australia and New Zealand has long contributed to the cultural life of communities, particularly by providing services and infrastructure for creative activities. Yet there is little common understanding of the role and functions of cultural policy at the local government level. Through a historical literature review and four contemporary case studies, this research elucidated some of the goals, values, techniques and traditions that are embedded in municipal arts programmes and cultural strategies.
Blomkamp, E. (2012). Control, Calculation and Collaboration in Cultural Policy Work at an Australian City Council, Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management.
The challenges and contradictions of managing publicly subsidised, collaborative arts and cultural projects are considered in this article through a case study of cultural activation in an Australian city. Drawing on empirical research and literature from public administration and governmentality studies, the author critically analyses the practices of policy workers in relation to two arts programs designed to achieve broad socio-cultural outcomes. While demonstrating the potential for creativity, collaboration and innovation in contemporary urban governance, this case study also reflects the difficulty of articulating and assessing the impacts of cultural interventions. The complex interplay of practices involved in managing these programs is portrayed as a governance medley, requiring policy workers to employ a range of skills and different types of knowledge. This article examines the governance of city culture in a particular site, while also depicting the culture of local governance in this municipality.
Boaden, S. & Ashton., P. (2015). Mainstreaming Culture: Integrating the cultural dimension into local government (pp. 19-36). In Ashton, P., C. Gibson and R. Gibson, (eds). By-Roads and Hidden Treasures: Mapping Cultural Assets in Regional Australia, Crawley: UWA.
This article by Australian cultural planning experts Boaden and Ashton, traces the history and current practices of cultural planning in Australian local government.
Council of Europe & European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research. Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe.
A web-based and permanently updated information and monitoring system of national cultural policies in Europe. It includes cultural statistics, monitoring information about national ratification of cultural conventions, and useful tools such as a draft indicator set.
Dang, S. R., & Duxbury, N. (2007). Planning for cultural infrastructure on municipal or regional scale: Key. Vancouver:Creative City Network of Canada.
This working paper from the Research Centre for Communication and Culture, Canada, explores the literature on approaches to, and issues around, planning for cultural infrastructure at a municipal or regional scale. It suggests that a broadly based, long-term planning approach for cultural infrastructure at a municipal or regional scale would help to achieve balance and coordination among existing perspectives, approaches, and development strategies and help address key issues and challenges.
Duxbury, N., Garrett-Petts W.F. & MacLennan, D. (ed.) (2015). Cultural Mapping as Cultural Inquiry. New York: Routledge.
This edited collection provides an introduction to the emerging interdisciplinary field of cultural mapping, offering a range of perspectives that are international in scope. Contributors explore innovative ways to encourage urban and cultural planning, community development, artistic intervention, and public participation in cultural mapping—recognizing that public involvement and artistic practices introduce a range of challenges spanning various phases of the research process, from the gathering of data, to interpreting data, to presenting “findings” to a broad range of audiences. The book responds to the need for histories and case studies of cultural mapping that are globally distributed and that situate the practice locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally.
Ghilardi, L. (2001) (ed.). Differing: Cultural policy and cultural diversity (pp. 123–134). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
This article is written by Lia Ghilardi, Founder and Director of Noema, a UK-based organisation working internationally to deliver place mapping and strategic cultural planning projects. It offers an overview of the issues raised in current debates about cultural diversity. The cultural planning framework is then introduced as a tool employed in the development of a more integrated approach to cultural development in contemporary urban settings. Finally, issues of governance and ethics are raised as areas needing further research.
Glow, H., Johanson, K & Kershaw, A. (2014). ‘More Yuppy Stuff Coming Soon’: Gentrification, cultural policy, social inclusion and the arts, Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 28:4, 495-508, DOI: 10.1080/10304312.2014.907870.
Responding to gentrification has become a key planning issue for many urban municipalities. Local governments need to balance the often-competing agendas of urban regeneration, social inclusion and arts access and participation. This paper argues that arts and cultural units within local government bear the impact of such tensions. More importantly, however, local government policies and their implementation represent a third position in the polarised discussion on the cultural impact of gentrification. The example discussed here is the rapidly gentrifying City of Maribyrnong in Melbourne’s western suburbs: a municipality where any potential realisation of the economic benefits of gentrification is balanced against the needs of a significant population of resident professional artists, and the social inclusion needs of socio-economically disadvantaged residents. Maribyrnong’s arts and cultural unit, like those within many municipalities in the developed world, has had to develop cultural policies and plans as tools for negotiating complex relationships and diverse needs of community members by considering the economic, social and cultural benefits of the arts for all residents.
Johanson, K., Kershaw, A., Glow, H. (2014). The Advantage of Proximity: The Distinctive Role of Local Government in Cultural Policy, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 73(2), 218–234. DOIi:10.1111/1467-8500.12078.
The arts and cultural sector has historically relied on funding from state and federal levels of government. Increasingly, however, local government has become a source of distinctive cultural policy making and a provider of significant funding for arts and cultural activities. The paper notes the relative absence of analyses of the role of local government in policy literature. It argues that with the recent proliferation of dedicated local cultural policies and plans, the attention of scholars is warranted. Through an analysis of the cultural plans of five local councils around Australia, the paper argues that the distinctive feature of cultural policy at the local level is a function of local government’s proximity to its constituents, flexibility in decision-making and the discretionary nature of its expenditure.
Markusen, A., & Gadwa, A. (2010). Arts and culture in urban /regional planning: A review and research agenda. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 29(3), 379–391.
Written by American researchers Ann Markusen, Professor and Director of the Project on Regional and Industrial Economics, University of Minnesota and Ann Gadwa, arts consultant, this paper reviews the state of knowledge about arts and culture as an urban or regional development tool, exploring norms, reviewing evidence for causal relationships, and analyzing stakeholders, bureaucratic fragmentation and citizen participation in cultural planning. Two strategies—designated cultural districts and tourist-targeted cultural investments—illustrate how better research would inform implementation.
Mennell, S. & Conference of Ministers with Responsibility for Cultural Affairs. Cultural policy in towns : a report on the Council of Europe’s “Experimental study of cultural development in European towns”, Council of Europe.
An insightful assessment of comparative cultural policies used to drive development across 15 different European towns. While the report was written some time ago, the findings continue to be relevant, particularly those that address the difficultly policy makers encounter when trying to develop ‘one-size fits all’ cultural policies across diverse locations.
Mills, D. (2003). Cultural Planning – Policy Task, not Tool, Artwork, 55.
This article, by experienced Australian cultural planner and consultant Deborah Mills, highlights issues around the confusion of cultural policy with arts policy. It promotes a holistic view of culture to include such concepts as meaning, values and aspirations. Culture is seen as informing planning for integrated outcomes, rather than an area of activity. Cultural policy plans and case studies from various Australian local governments are explored.
Pascual, J. & Dragojević, S. (2007). Guide to Citizen Participation in Local Cultural Policy Development for European Cities. European Cultural Foundation.
A collaborative publication of European Cultural Foundation, Interarts Foundation and ECUMEST Association, this book offers a series of conceptual and strategic tools to explore local cultural policies development in Europe. It proposes theoretical premises for future local urban policies – those directly influencing individual cultural participation and wellbeing. Culture, as the fourth pillar of development in relation to human rights, and urban space as the place for cultural participation, are among the key issues discussed.
Stevenson, D. (2005). Cultural planning in Australia: Texts and contexts. Journal of Arts Management. 35, 36–48.
In this article, Deborah Stevenson, Professor of Sociology and Urban Cultural Research at the Institute for Culture and Society, University of Western Sydney, looks at how the idea of culture (as a way of life and as “art”) is understood and negotiated in selected instances of cultural planning in Australia. She also considers influence on the development of Australian cultural planning, both as an idea and as a strategy.
Stevenson, D. & Young, G. (Ed.) (2013). The Ashgate Research Companion to Planning and Culture. Ashgate Publishing: England.
This research compendium brings together leading experts from around the world to map the contours of the relationship between planning and culture and to present these inextricably linked concepts and issues together in one place. By examining significant trends in varying national and international contexts, the contributors scrutinise the theories and practices of both planning and culture and explore not only their interface, but significant divergences and tensions.In doing so, this collection provides the first comprehensive overview and analysis of planning and culture, interdisciplinary and international in scope.