Creativity stimulated (Stimulation)

Aesthetic enrichment experienced (Enrichment)
New knowledge, insights and ideas gained (Insight)
Cultural diversity appreciated (Appreciation)
Sense of belonging to shared heritage experienced (Belonging)
Evaluation methods

Americans for the Arts (2015). Americans Speak Out About the Arts: An In-Depth Look at Perceptions and Attitudes About the Arts in America. New York: Americans for the Arts.

Arts Victoria (2013). OIP Assessment Framework. Melbourne: Arts Victoria.

Arts Victoria (2015).

Australia Council for the Arts (2014). A culturally ambitious nation: Strategic plan 2014–2019. Author. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts. Retrieved from

Australia Council for the Arts (2016). Cultural engagement framework. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts. Accessed 28 May 2016 from

Belfiore, E. (2015). ‘Impact’, ‘value’ and ‘bad economics’: Making sense of the problem of value in the arts and humanities, Arts & Humanities in Higher Education, 14(1) 95–110.

Beyond Empathy (2009). Social Audit: Social Accounts. Armidale: Beyond Empathy.

Big Society Capital (2015). Outcomes matrix. Retrieved 1 September, 2015 from

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In Richardson, J.(Ed). Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York: Greenwood Press, pp. 241-258.

Brown, A. (2004). The Value Study: Rediscovering the Meaning and Value of Arts Participations. Hartford CT: Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism.

Camlin, D. (2014). Whose quality is it anyway? Inhabiting the creative tension between presentational and participatory music, Journal of Arts & Communities 6(2), DOI: 10.1386/jaac.6.2-3.99_1

Catterall, J. (2012). The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk Youth. Washington DC: National Endowment for the Arts.

Claudia, I., Giulia, F., Raffaello, S., Carlo, F. (2014). The Stendhal Syndrome between Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience. Rivista di Psichiatria. 49(2):61–6

Cohen, G. (2006). The Creativity and Aging Study. The National Endowment for the Arts and George Washington University. Retrieved from:, February 20, 2013.

Creative Victoria (2015).

Crossick, G. & Kaszynska, P. (2016). Understanding the value of arts & culture. London: Arts and Humanities Research Council.

CultureCounts (2015).

De Beukelar, C. & O’Connor, J. (2017). The creative economy and the development agenda. In Stupples, P., & K. Teaiwa (Eds.). Contemporary perspectives in art and international development, pp. 27-47. London: Routledge.

Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht (2015). Value for money and policy review of the arts council. Dublin:Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht.

Dissanayake, E. (1995). Homo aestheticus. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Dunphy, K. (2010a). How can the impact of cultural development work in local government be measured?: towards more effective planning and evaluation strategies, Local-Global Journal, RMIT, 7, 100-119.

Dunphy, K. (2013). The role of participatory arts in social change in Timor-Leste,  PhD thesis, Melbourne: Deakin University. Available in book form

Evans, J. McFerran, K., White, T. & Yue, A. (2016). Investigating Wellbeing Outcomes: The Melbourne Recital Centre, Melbourne: University of Melbourne.

GCCP (Global Compact Cities Program) (2013). Circles of Sustainability’ Urban Profile Process. Accessed 14 April 2014. Available at:

Goldman, K.H., Yalowitz, S., Wilcox, E., Audience Viewpoints Consulting (2016). The Impact of Arts-Based Innovation Training on the Creative Thinking Skills, Collaborative Behaviors, and Innovation Outcomes of Adolescents and Adults. New York: The Art of Science Learning. Retrieved from

Hawkes, J. (2001). The Fourth Pillar of Sustainability. Melbourne: Cultural Development Network.

Hilbers, J. (2012). The challenges and opportunities of community celebrations that value diversity and foster unity: Beyond ‘spaghetti and polka’, Journal of Arts & Communities, 3(1), 23-37.

Holden, J. (2006). Cultural value and the crisis of legitimacy. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from
Ife, J. (1995). Community development: Creating community alternatives – version, analysis and practice. Melbourne: Longman.

Hong, B. (2014). National cultural indicators in New Zealand. Cultural Trends, 23(2), 93–108.

Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development (1998). Stockholm, 30 March- 2 April 1998.

International Network on Cultural Policy (2000). 3rd Annual Ministerial Meeting of the International Network on Cultural Policy.

Ixia (2014). Public art: A guide to evaluation (4th ed) (Birmingham: ixia). Accessed March 13, 2014.

James, P. with Magee, L. Scerri, A. & Steger, M. (2015). Urban sustainability in theory and practice. London: Routledge.

Kawulich, B. (2005). Participant observation as a data collection method. Forum: Qualitative social research, 6(2), Art 43.

Lampkin, L. Winkler, M., Kerlin, J. Hatry, H., Natenshon, D. Saul, J., Melkers, J. & Seshadri, A. (2006). Building a common outcome framework to measure non-profit performance. Washington: Urban Institute. Accessed

Mastandrea, A., Bartoli, G. & Bove, G. (2009). Preferences for ancient and modern arts museums, Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 3(3), 164-173.

Matarasso, F. (1996).  Defining values: Evaluating arts programs. London: Comedia.

Matarasso, F. (1997).  Use or ornament? The social impact of participation in the arts. London: Comedia.

McCarthy, K., Ondaatje, E., Zakaras, L., & Brooks, A. (2004). Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the debate about the benefits of the arts. USA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved 20 December, 2009 from

McLeod, S.A. (2007b). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.prg/carl-rogers.html

Ministry ICA, Singapore cited in NEA, 2014).

NEA (2014). Measuring Cultural Engagement. Summary of Joint Research Symposium June 2014, Washington: NEA.

Nicholson, T. R. J., Pariante, C., McLoughlin, D. (2009). “Stendhal syndrome: A case of cultural overload”. Case Reports 2009: bcr0620080317. doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2008.0317.

O’Hagan, J. (2016) Objectives of arts funding agencies often do not map well on to societal benefits, Cultural Trends, 25(4), 249-262, DOI: 10.1080/09548963.2016.1241343.

Pope, J. & Doyle, S. (2006). Strengthening Local Communities: Arts in Community Settings – The Evaluation of Two Community Support Funded Arts Programs. Melbourne: Department for Victorian Communities.

Radbourne, J., Johanson, K. & Glow, H. (2010). Empowering audiences to measure quality, Participations: Journal of audience & reception studies, 7(2), 360-379.

Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Throsby, D. (2001). Economics and culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

UNESCO (1998). Action plan to place culture at the heart of development, the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development, Stockholm,

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) (2006). Agenda 21 for Culture. Barcelona: UCLG. Retrieved from

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) (2010). Culture: the fourth pillar of sustainable development, Barcelona: UCLG.

United Cities and Local Government (2015). Agenda 21 for Culture, Barcelona: UCLG.

Walker (2002)

Weil, S. (1996). Tax policy and private giving. In S. Weil (Ed.), A cabinet of curiosities: Inquiries into museums and their prospects (pp. 157–182). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

WolfBrown Intrinsic Impact)

Wolf, D. & Holochowst, S. (n.d). Investing in the long view. Sounding Board 31

World Commission on Culture and Development